For quite a long time I was using LithWin for Windows to add Russian Phonetic keyboard layout, so the letters/sounds pronounced in Russian would be the same letters pronounced in English. In other words, having a keyboard layout with the following layout:
A=А B=Б C=Ц D=Д E=Е F=Ф G=Г H=Х ... and so on.
With Lithwin, it worked on 2000, 2003, XP and even on Vista but only 32 bits. On the 64 bits Windows it didn't work. With the help of Microsoft Keyboard Layout Creator, it is possible to open he existing layouts and then create installations for other versions of Windows, including x64. So, I have recompiled the Russian Phonetic to make it possible to run on Vista x64. It will work on any windows starting from Windows 2000 as well. So, if you cannot find the Russian Phonetic layout for XP, you can use this one. In comparison with LithWin, it will automatically add the language to the installed/used ones. Download it here.
Update 1: Works on Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8 both x86 and x64 editions.
Update 2: It will not be possible to install it on Windows 8 RT. There is Mnemonic Russian keyboard layout available in RT. It has the same principle but a slightly different layout (which I actually don't like as much as the Phonetic one)
Update 3: If it installs on Windows 8 but is not shown in the language menu, try adding a usual
Russian (touch) input method first, then installing the Phonetic layout. It should all the Phonetic to the language list. After that remove the usual Russian input method.
Update 4: 2014-10-02: Just installed it on Windows Technical Preview Build 9841. Works as expected.
Update 5: 2016-01-16: It installs OK on Windows 10 (x64) new installations but requires restart for the layout to come up in the language panel (even though it does not say that explicitly).